The exact cause of AMD is currently unknown but risk factors include:
- Age. AMD is more common over the age of 65 but can develop in younger patients.
- Smoking. People who smoke have a greater risk of developing AMD.
- Sunlight. Some studies suggest that exposure to high levels of sunlight increases the risk of developing AMD.
- Diet. Various studies have highlighted the lack of specific vitamins and minerals as a possible risk factor.
- Gender. There are more women than men with AMD, although this may be a result of women living longer.
- Genetics. Certain genes increase the risk of AMD, although not all forms of AMD are thought to be inherited.